Package managers extract files to specific locations on your machine. If can extract these same archives locally, we tell the compiler to look in these folders for headers instead of OS folders. First, my choice of a broadly-accessible Linux distribution that has good tooling is Debian, of which Ubuntu is a fork and which has a straightforward packaging system found with apt and its.
Second, we need to pick a sufficiently old enough version of Debian that would support ABI-compatible libraries. Downloading library headers directly means navigating a hyperlink survey of computer architectures and CDNs.
I poked around for a while to see if there was an obvious way to compute the URL of any Debian package, but it looks like to retrieve the package URL you basically need to reimplement all of aptitude the package manager used by Debian. Because there were no brew formulae for libapt , and no standalone Rust bindings either, I assumed any solution would be more complicated than just referencing the direct URL. As such, the build script fetches each package URL in sequence and extracts them into a local folder:.
You can see the dependencies my build script relies on. Note that we only install the packages we need to build with: Other than that, these are all the packages I required when cross-compiling. Again this is made easy with brew thanks to another community contribution:. This specifies the linker headers and shared library locations, and some OpenSSL-specific flags required by openssl-sys. Take note of -isystem , which changes where gcc looks for system headers.
Because we are using only Debian packages, the OpenSSL-specific build flags refer to the same folders as our other system libraries. Next, I created a example Dockerfile based on Debian that, when the binary is placed in the same directory, just launches it:. I tried it out with docker run on my machine, and saw the server successfully boot up:.
This is Debian, running locally on my machine, successfully running the binary we compiled on my Mac. Since this is the same Dockerfile we send to the server, this means the server will be able to deploy it too! There is one more step here: Checking a large binary into Git just so Dokku could receive it via git push performs very poorly, and really is not what Git is built for. What worked for me: This Dokku command loads a tarball from stdin in this case and deploys it, making it possible to push new code to the server without needing to check in anything to git each time.
And the result: If rustup target is a blueprint for the future, I imagine an ecosystem of cross-compilation tools will inevitably spring up that makes bundling for other OSes straightforward and configurable. Quoting from the announcement post for rustup target: And I wanted to learn more about this part of the article: On Linux there are so many different build systems and combinations, I don't think there is any better advise than to write a blog entry about how you succeeded building x tool in y strange configuration.
If you make a package description for macports or homebrew then anyone can install that package, and it solves the dependency problems too. However this is often not easy, and it also isn't easy to get your macports recipe included in the main macports tree.
Also macports doesn't support exotic installation types, they offer one choice for all packages. One of my future goals with Homebrew is to make it possible to click a link on a website eg. But yeah, not yet done, but not too tricky considering the design I chose. What are the command line tools I need to master to get good at this stuff?
Stuff like otool, pkg-config etc. It tells you what the built binary links to. When you are figuring out the dependencies of a tool you have to build, it is useless. The same is true of pkg-config as you will have already installed the dependency before you can use it. Watch the build output to check it is sane.
Parse any build errors. Maybe in future, ask on serverfault: Ulrich also describes why static linking is considered harmful one of the key points here is security updates. Buffer overflows in a common library eg zlib that is extensively linked statically can cause a huge overhead for distributions - this occured with zlib 1. Reading the DSO howto should give you a good basic level of knowledge in order to then go on to understand how those principles apply to Mach-O on OS X.
The Mach format documentation is available from Apple.
Autoconf uses tests to determine feature availability on the target build system, it uses M4 macro language to drive this. Automake is basically a templating method for Makefiles, the template generally being called Makefile. The GNU hello program acts as a good example for understanding the GNU toolchain - and the manual includes autotools documentation.
I know how you feel; I struggled with this part of learning Linux, too. Based on my own experiences, I wrote a tutorial about some of the items that you address mostly as a reference for myself! While the Ubuntu repositories are chock full of great applications, at one time or another you are bound to come across that "must-have" tool that isn't in the repositories or doesn't have a Debian package or you need a newer version than in the repositories.
What do you do? Well, you have to build the application from source! Don't worry, it's really not as complicated as it sounds. Here are some tips, based on my experiences of going from being a rank amateur! The basic process of building compiling most applications from source follows this sequence: In some cases, you'll even find web pages that show that all of these can be combined into a single command:.
Of course, this command assumes that there are no problems in any of these steps. This is where the fun comes in! If you haven't compiled an application from source on your system before, you will probably need to set it up with some general development tools, such as the gcc compiler suite, some common header files think of this as code that has already been written by someone else that is used by the program you are installing , and the make tool.
Fortunately, in Ubuntu, there is a metapackage called build-essential that will install of this. To install it or just make sure that you already have it! Typically, these will be in an archive file with file extension of either. Similarly, the. After you've downloaded the source file, open a terminal window System Terminal from the Ubuntu menu and change to the directory where you saved your file. Use the tar command to extract the files from the downloaded archive file:. If you don't want to have to remember all of the command line switches for extracting archives, I recommend getting one or both of these utilities: With either of these utilities, you just enter the name of the utility dtrx or deco and the filename, it it does all of the rest.
Both of these "know" how to handle most any archive format that you are likely to run across and they have great error handling. When building from source, there are two common types of errors that you are likely to encounter:. After you've extracted the source code archive file, in the terminal, you should change to the directory that contains the extracted files. Typically, this directory name will be the same as the name of the file without the. However, sometimes the directory name is just the name of the application, without any version information.
Sometimes the file might have an an extension, such as. This is usually a shell script that runs some other utilities to confirm that you have a "sane" environment for compiling. In other words, it will check to ensure that you have everything installed that you need. If this is a Python-based application, instead of a config file, you should find a file named setup. Python applications are typically very simple to install.
macos - Compiling/Using a Linux source on Mac OS X - Super User
To install this application, as root e. That should be all that you need to do. You can skip the remainder of this tutorial and proceed directly to using and enjoying your application. Run the configuration script in the terminal. Typically, you can and should! The script will display some messages to give you an idea of what it is doing. Often, the script will give you an indication of whether it succeeded or failed and, if it failed, some information about the cause of the failure. If you don't get any error messages, then you can usually assume that everything went fine.
If you don't find any script that looks like a configuration script, then it typically means that the application is a very simple one and it is platform independent. In this tutorial, I'm going to use the text-based RSS reader called Newsbeuter as an example for the types of errors that you may encounter when building your application. For Newsbeuter, the name of the configuration script is config. On my system, when I run config. Upon doing some research, I found that, in fact, the sqlite3 application was installed.
However, since I'm trying to build from source, this is a tip that what config. In Ubuntu, most packages have an associated development counterpart package that ends in -dev. Other platforms, such as Fedora, often use a package suffix of -devel for the development packages. To find the appropriate package for the sqlite3 development package, we can use the apt-cache utility in Ubuntu and, similarly, the yum utility in Fedora:.
Compiling on Linux and Mac OS X
This command returns quite a big list of results, so we have to do a bit of detective work to determine which is the appropriate package. In this case, the appropriate package turns out to be libsqlite3-dev. Notice that sometimes the package we are looking for will have the lib prefix, instead of just the same package name plus -dev. This is because sometimes we are just looking for a shared library that may be used by many different applications. To install libsqlite3-dev , run the typical apt-get install command in the terminal:.
Now, we have to run config. While I won't show it here, in the case of Newsbeuter, I also had to install the libcurl4-openssl-dev package, as well. Also, if you install a development package like libsqlite3-dev and the associated application package e. When the configuration runs successfully, the result will be that it will create one or more make files.
How We Can Use This
If the build package includes sub-directories, such as src , etc. Now, we are ready to actually compile the application. This is often called building and the name is borrowed from the real-world process of constructing something. The various "pieces" of the application, which are typically multiple source code files, are combined together to form the overall application. The make utility manages the build process and calls other applications, such as the compiler and linker, to actually do the work.
In most cases, you simply run make with your regular user account from directory where you ran the configuration. In a few cases, such as compiling applications written with the Qt library, you will need to run another "wrapper" application like qmake instead. As with the configuration script above, when you run make or the similar utility in the terminal, it will display some messages about what is executing and any warnings and errors.
You can typically ignore warnings, as they are mainly for the developers of the application and are telling them that there are some standard practices that are being violated. I don't even know what the program will look like. Or is it a genuine GUI app? It all depends on how portable the developers made their program. Expect developers to be lazy — some might even try to compile their code on Windows and Ubuntu only.
Rob, what I meant was:
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